Providing New Access to the General Curriculum: Universal Design for Learning

This article examines what is meant by access, participation, and progress in the regular education curriculum and suggests a new framework for curriculum reform that holds promise for all students, particularly students with disabilities. The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is presented and materials and methods of UDL are described. (Contains references.) (CR)

Referencia:
Hitchcock, C., Meyer, A., Rose, D. & Jackson, R. (2002). Providing New Access to the General Curriculum: Universal Design for Learning. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35(2), 8-17.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=eric3&AN=EJ655577

A phenomenological, hermeneutic case study of two studio learning environments: Reggio Emilia pre-school atelier and MIT TEAL freshmen studio physics

This qualitative, phenomenological, hermeneutic case study explores two studio learning environments: the Reggio Emilia inspired Atelier of School within School, at Peabody Elementary, Washington, DC and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Freshmen Studio Physics, Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL). This study focuses on understanding processes through which learning takes place in two distinct studio learning environments, through observation of the instructional, attitudinal and architectural aspects of these classrooms and what occurs in them. The study uses a confluence of theories producing a multi-faceted conceptual lens through which data is viewed for understanding. This lens includes: the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, the Ethic of Care, Universal Design for Learning and Studio Habits of Mind. The goal of the study was to create a rich description of each particular case in order to identify the structures and processes inherent in the respective models and their implications for learning, as well as their potential as learning environments for students with disabilities and “at-risk” students. This case study relied primarily on three sources of data: (a) observation, (b) interviews and (c) artifacts. Triangulation and analysis of data resulted in rich descriptive narrative of the two studios. The results of this study defined Atelier (studio) at School within School through four major emergent themes (a) student-centered learning, (b) community, (c) multiple ways of knowing, (d) comfort and care. The study defined the TEAL studio at MIT through five major emergent themes: (a) student-centered learning, (b) multiple ways of knowing, (c) collaboration and community, (d) comfort and care, (e) teacher dispositions. A blended model of the cases concludes that studio, (a) offers student-driven hands-on active learning, (b) breaks down barriers between teachers and students, (c) is conducive to the development of caring peer relationships, (d) removes hierarchy and competition, (e) empowers students towards proficiency in the use of tools for learning, (f) offers multiple modalities for teaching and learning, (g) provides ongoing feedback and assessment, (h) learning is transparent and open-ended. This qualitative phenomenological, hermeneutic case study adds to the body of literature on studio settings as learning spaces and provides a platform for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

Referencia:
Magee, C. M. (2009). A phenomenological, hermeneutic case study of two studio learning environments: Reggio Emilia pre-school atelier and MIT TEAL freshmen studio physics.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=psyc&AN=2009-99231-304

Getting It Right from the Start: Employing the Universal Design for Learning Approach to Your Curriculum

The universal design for learning (UDL) approach to teaching, a method to create access for all students, can be extremely effective when adequate time, energy, and creativity are spent to apply it. The purpose of this article is to encourage the use of the universal design for learning approach to ensure the successful inclusion of all students from the beginning of the lesson to the closure. It discusses three variables that must be considered when designing a UDL lesson: (1) the attributes of the students; (2) the objectives of the lesson and individual students; and (3) modification variables. It also discusses the FAMME (functional approach to modifying movement experiences) model, a noncategorical approach (not based on disability labels) to creating modifications for lessons in order to enhance the learning of all students regardless of their ability level. This approach involves four simple steps that can be easily implemented by any teacher to create universally designed instruction: (1) determine the underlying components; (2) determine the students’ capabilities; (3) match modifications to the students’ needs; and (4) evaluate modifications. The article presents lesson variables that can be adapted to support various levels of underlying functional abilities. These variables, or modifications, fall into three areas: (1) equipment, (2) rules, and (3) instruction. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.) (ERIC)

Referencia:
Lieberman, L. J., Lytle, R. K. & Clarcq, J. A. (2008). Getting It Right from the Start: Employing the Universal Design for Learning Approach to Your Curriculum. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 79(2), 32-39.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=eric3&AN=EJ795646

Transforming Universal Design for Learning in Early Childhood Teacher Education from College Classroom to Early Childhood Classroom

This article focuses on the application of Universal Design for Learning from theory to practice from the college classroom to the practicum experiences of preservice teacher candidates. It combines description of two research projects that explored and documented how participants understand and use Universal Design for Learning in lesson planning. Universal Design for Learning holds promise in training early childhood teacher educators to work with diverse populations and to provide access to learning for all students, including children with special needs. In Study One, 36 teacher candidates used action research to implement a Universal Design for Learning strategy, collect and analyze data, and become researchers. In Study Two, five teacher candidates were introduced to the principles of Universal Design for Learning and designed lesson plans for their practica. These qualitative research studies explored and documented how teacher candidates understand, introduce, and integrate the principles and practices of Universal Design for Learning. An overview of principles and practices of Universal Design for Learning, its use in the college classroom, its application in lesson planning and teaching, and the use of action research to determine its impact on the learning of all students in public school classrooms are presented. (As Provided)

Referencia:
McGuire-Schwartz, M. E. A., J. S. (2007). Transforming Universal Design for Learning in Early Childhood Teacher Education from College Classroom to Early Childhood Classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 28(2), 127-139.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=eric3&AN=EJ828432

The effects of universal design for learning as a secondary support on student behaviors and academic achievement in an urban high school implementing primary level positive behavior support

This study provides descriptive data on a pilot study investigating Universal Design for Learning (UDL) with Positive Behavior Support (PBS). The study took place in a diverse urban high school that was already implementing primary level PBS. Students at the school were continually taught expectations and acknowledged for good behaviors. The author utilized a purposive sample of four Literature classrooms. All four classrooms were inclusive (students with and without special needs were educated together). The classrooms were matched for comparison. Teachers from all four classrooms were given a refresher workshop and follow up support to help them continue to implement the primary (school-wide) PBS system in place. After three weeks of baseline data collection, the author provided training and follow up support to two of the four classroom teachers in UDL. The two treatment teachers implemented UDL lesson planning strategies that provided the students with flexible options for learning. Descriptive data suggest possible connections between UDL and improvements in student academic engagement and behaviors. Implications for future research are reported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

Referencia:
Morrissey, K. L. (2009). The effects of universal design for learning as a secondary support on student behaviors and academic achievement in an urban high school implementing primary level positive behavior support.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=psyc&AN=2009-99070-235

Accessibility in Post Secondary Education: Application of UDL to College Curriculum

The inclusion of students with disabilities at the university is a relatively new occurrence in the field of special education. Although legislation in the United States has supported the acceptance of students with disabilities at the post-secondary level, it has only provided minimal support with the emphasis on the learner rather than the curriculum. Now we are looking for multiple ways for students to access learning and demonstrate mastery. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is currently seen as a means to reconceptionalize curriculum. This study examines the experience of four professors and their effort to use a Classroom Performance System (CPS) as part of reformatting their courses using UDL. The Center for Applied Special Technology, CAST (2001) states that the goal of Universal Design for Learning is to develop teaching methods that enable all students with diverse learning needs, including those with disabilities and cultural differences, to have equal access to classroom curriculum. This paradigm shift echoes the move in special education from a deficit model to a minority rights model put forward by Hahn (1989), and which is the basis of inclusive educational philosophy. Together inclusion and UDL create learning environments that strive to serve all students. This research describes the implementation of clickers as part of the CPS program in college courses in a special education teacher preparation program. The case study demonstrates how technology can provide access for all learners with positive outcomes such as increased participation and application of knowledge. It also illustrates some of the difficulties in making this pedagogical paradigm shift particularly in the use of technology, and the value of overcoming the existing barriers in place. (As Provided)

Referencia:
Pace, D. S., D. (2008). Accessibility in Post Secondary Education: Application of UDL to College Curriculum. Online Submission US China Education Review, 5(12), 20-26.

Curriculum Access and Universal Design for Learning

This digest discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requirements which state that all students, regardless of their abilities, be given the opportunity to become involved with and progress in the general education curriculum. It describes how educators can use a curriculum that has been universally designed to ensure accessibility. Essential features of universal design for learning are discussed, including: (1) the curriculum provides multiple means of representation, allowing subject matter to be presented in alternative modes for students who learn best from visual or auditory information, or for those who need differing levels of complexity; (2) the curriculum provides multiple means of expression to allow students to respond with their preferred means of control; and (3) the curriculum provides multiple means of engagement that allow students’ interests in learning to be matched with the mode of presentation and their preferred means of expression. The digest warns against “dumbing down” the curriculum, and urges teachers to maintain the curriculum at a sufficient level of difficulty to allow student progress. Support for a universal design curriculum is discussed, and groups who are working on universal design issues are identified. (CR)

Referencia:
Orkwis, R. (1999). Curriculum Access and Universal Design for Learning. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E586. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=eric3&AN=ED437767

Study of the impact of universal design for learning in the elementary classroom

Today’s diverse classrooms include students of all academic levels, needs, learning styles, languages, and abilities. With the implementation of No Child Left Behind (2001), students with diverse learning needs, such as special education students with an Individual Education Plan, or second language learners, are required to learn the same information as the general education curriculum for the purposes of testing. No Child Left Behind reports indicate that at least one quarter of United States schools are struggling to achieve Annual Yearly Progress (AYP). Furthermore, now that the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) (Public Law 110-315) enacted August 14, 2008 contains provisions for Universal Design for Learning (UDL), research to show its benefit to teacher preparation and student learning may guide educators of all levels in the implementation of UDL to meet the needs of learners of all ages. Through the application of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles, higher levels of success may take place in classrooms in spite of the diverse needs of students leading schools to achieve AYP. In order to determine the benefits and best practices or processes of Universal Design for Learning implementation, a sound research design must be implemented. The key question researched here is whether or not the implementation of UDL principles impacted fourth grade students’ reading grades. A one tailed t-test analysis was conducted for this study, comparing grades prior to and after the implementation of UDL into the classroom. This study used a combination of ii qualitative and quantitative data gathered during research. Report card reading grades determined the quantitative outcomes, and then teacher and student follow-up surveys comprised the qualitative data. The purpose of this research is to determine whether student learning is greater than, equal to, or less than in one setting over the other. This study examined student-learning data prior to the implementation of the principles of UDL and the impact of the implementation on student achievement, participation, and interactivity. Research outcomes indicate that the implementation of UDL into the elementary classroom has a positive impact on student learning in a variety of ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

Referencia:
Thorp, A. F. (2009). Study of the impact of universal design for learning in the elementary classroom. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 69(11-A), 4302.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=psyc&AN=2009-99090-412

Effects of training in universal design learning on lesson plan development

The effects of training in Universal Design for Learning (UDL) on lesson plan development of special and general educators in a college classroom environment were investigated. A true experimental group design with a control group was used for this study. A one-hour teacher training session introduced UDL to the experimental group; the control group received the intervention later. A three-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures was completed for each of the dependent variables (i.e., UDL lesson plan). Differences were found between pretest and posttest measures for both treatment groups for special education and general education teachers. The results suggest that a simple introduction to UDL can help teachers to design a lesson plan accessible for all students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract).

Referencia:
Spooner, F., Baker, J. N., Harris, A. A., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Browder, D. M. (2007). Effects of training in universal design learning on lesson plan development. Remedial and Special Education, 28(2), 108-116.

Universal Design for Learning, Access to the General Education Curriculum and Students With Mild Mental Retardation

Promoting student access to the general education curriculum remains a focus of the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This article examines educational practices that promote such access for students with mild mental retardation, overviews issues pertaining to the implementation of supplementary aids and services to achieve this outcome, introduces a planning process to assist individual educational program teams to better plan for access, and examines extant research pertaining to the degree to which students with mild mental retardation have such access. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract).

Referencia:
Wehmeyer, M. L. (2006). Universal Design for Learning, Access to the General Education Curriculum and Students With Mild Mental Retardation. Exceptionality, 14(4), 225-235.
Enlace:
http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=psyc5&AN=2006-20849-004